Mechanisms of action of SOCs contained in Mix - Alive
Key antimicrobial activity of Mix Alive comes from Sulfur Organic Compounds (SOCs) from Alliaceae extracts. The Alliaceae family includes 13 genera and 600 species. Main representatives are onion, garlic, leek, shallots and chives.
By Frederic Jozwiak
Depending of the pathogen, there are several ways for SOCs to penetrate cells (Figure 1).
Due to their low molecular weight, SOCs can easily diffuse into the internal volume of vesicles or into the cytoplasm of cells. That is the case in Gram – where peptidoglycan layer is small. IN gram + bacteria or virus, due to the presence of higher peptidoglycans layer or capsid protein, SOCs passively diffuse through ionic channels or by use of protein of transport. Lipid bilayers do not constitute a barrier for SOCs penetration and its diffusion through the lipid bilayer does not cause membrane leakage, fusion or aggregation.
Some research studies raise the possibility that in biological systems, SOCs can penetrate very rapidly into different compartments of the cells and exert its biological effects. Thus, significance of SOCs as a biological effectors’ molecule is due not only to its high reactivity with low and high molecular weigh thiols and its prominent antioxidant activity, but also to its accessibility resulting from high membrane permeability.
DIRECT ANTIMICROBIAL FUNCTIONS
SOCs give Mix Alive antibacterial properties due to different interactions with cell functions. Once in the cell, SOCs combine with certain enzymes or proteins to alter their structure, injuring the cells (figure 2) after fixation and dislocation of thiol functions contained in disulfur bridges involved in functional structure of proteins and enzymes.
Figure 2: Denaturation of microbial proteins by fixation of Mix - Alive SOCs on disulfur bridges
Among the associated altered functions, one find gene expression, energetic metabolism and protein synthesis leading to a global malfunctioning of the cell and a final apoptosis (figure 3).
Figure 3: Functional metabolic alterations by SOCs contained in Mix - Alive
SOCs appear to target multiple pathways, including the modulation of enzyme activities (eg. glutathione S-transferase involved in several vital pathways), the inhibition of DNA enzymes (gyrase, polymerase...), the affection of the intrinsic pathway for apoptotic cell death and cell cycle machinery. SOCs can block synthesis of polyamines needed for cell division. They can also disrupt cellular microtubules that form the cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle in cells, thus disrupting cell division.
The antiproliferative effect of SOCs compounds appears to be related to the induction of apoptosis of the cell and finally the antimicrobial effect in the case of alteration of pathogenic cell.
NON DRECT ANTIMICROBIAL STIMULATION OF HOST’s DEFENSES
Regarding their effect on host antimicrobial system, SOCs can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and passes into the bloodstream to activate non specific immune and antibacterial machinery.
That explains why antimicrobial activities are observed in blood compartment with Mix - Alive applications.